- Glucocorticoids (ex. prednisone) are usually used in the treatment of MPA in order to suppress the systemic symptoms and arrest the progression of MPA. More specifically, these medications suppress the immune system and help reduce the amount of inflammation of the blood vessels.
- Cyclophosphamide (CYC)
- Methotrexate (MTX)
- Azathioprine (AZA)
- Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)
Immunosupressants are often used in combination with steroids. It is important to note that different combinations of medications are used at different phases in the treatment of GPA. For example, initially, corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide are used together to begin treatment (induction therapy). Later on, maintenance therapy (see below) consists of drugs such as mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or azathioprine (AZA). Also note that in milder cases of MPA, methotrexate (MTX) is used in conjunction with corticosteroids instead of cyclophosphamide.
Refractory diseases, which do not respond to medications such as steroids and immunosupressants, can be treated using biological therapies.
- A technique that removes the liquid portion of the patient’s blood (called plasma) which may contain disease-related substances. After this, the body is given an infusion of fresh protein or plasma which allows the body to produce new plasma. This technique can be used for adult patients with serious MPA in order to help the kidneys recover.